The Institute has been founded on the facility of laboratory of welding belonged to the Chair of Engineering Constructions of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (A-UkrAS) and Electric Welding Committee in accor¬dance with the resolution of the Presidium of the A-UkrAS by the initiative of academician Paton Evgeny Oscarovich (E.O.Paton), the outstanding engineer and scientist, in January, 1934. E.O.Paton became the f rst director of the Electric Welding Institute and def ned the main directions of its scientif c activity. Since 1953 and until now the ac¬ademician Paton Boris Evgenievich is the director of the Institute.
At the first stage the possibility of manufacture of welded structures, being not inferior by their strength and reli¬ability to riveted ones, was proved in principle. This expired to mass implementation of new technologies of weld¬ing into industry. By 1940 the development of a high-efficient process of automatic submerged arc welding was finalized and its implementation at the plants of the country started. It was this process that was implemented by the Institute staff in shops of tank plant in the Urals during the Great Patriotic War for joining of an armored steel, thus allowing creation of production line for manufacture of welded hulls of tanks T-34 and mechanization of welding of other military machinery. Pre-war and war stages in the Institute activity are the periods of establish¬ment of the new scientific school, which convincing confirmation of authority was awarding the name of Paton Evgeny Oscarovich to the Institute of Electric Welding in 1945.
Over the years of reconstruction of national economy, ruined by the war, the efforts of the Institute staff were di¬rected to the widening of fields of application of the high-efficient automatic and semiautomatic submerged arc welding instead of manual one, to rationalization of welded structures and industrialization of their manufacture. The Institute staff was the first in the world to realize the automatic welding of sheet structures directly under the site conditions. The works of this period made a decisive effect on the rates of the after-war reconstruction of in¬dustry, development of modern production of building metal structures, high-reliable products of heavy, transport, chemical, power engineering and other branches of machine building.
One of the most important achievements of the Institute at the beginning of the 1950s of the XX century was the development of the new process of joining the thick-walled parts and billets. i.e. the electroslag welding. This process made radical changes in the manufacture of heavy frames, boilers, hydraulic units and other unique welded-rolled, welded-cast structures. Later, in collaboration with TsNIIT mach and other organizations a method of CO2 arc welding was developed, found wide spreading in the industry and provided the great growth in the lev¬el of mechanization of welding jobs. The further development of the arc welding with consumable electrode was the development of the process and equipment of a pulsed-arc welding, welding with flux-cored wire and in mix¬tures of active and inert gases.
Since the 1950s of the XX century the searching investigations and experimental developments were widened by the initiative of academician Paton B.E. on the application of welding heat sources for producing metals and alloys of extra-high quality and reliability. This branch of engineering was named as a special electrometallurgy and now it is the second main trend in the Institute activity. The works of the st n this new branch was the next step in the development of the modern high-quality metallurgy. At the begif the 1980s of the XX century one more scientific direction was formed: thermal spraying of protective aesistant coatings. Over the recent years the unique technologies of welding live tissues and vessels developed, which passed tests on animals and used now in surgery operations on humans.
In 1969 the pilot-cosmonaut Kubasov V.N. was the f rst in the world to realize the unique experiment on weld¬ing by electron beam, plasma and consumable electrode using the unit "Vulkan", designed at the PWI, on the board of spaceship "Soyuz-6". So, the start was made for the space technologies having a large importance in exploration of space. In 1984 the cosmonauts S.E.Savitskaya and V.A. Djanibekov performed for the f rst time in the world the experiments on welding , brazing, cutting and coating in open space using a versatile hand elec¬tron beam tool VHT, designed and manufactured at the PWI. Later, the integrated experiments were performed in open space for deployment of 12 m truss structure, accompanied by welding and brazing of its separate units using VHT, and two 15 m truss structures were deployed for solar batteries of the technological module, docked to orbital station "Mir".
The system investigations of physical-metallurgical peculiarities of fusion welding of different metals and alloys, made at the Institute, have a fundamental importance. The processes of weld metal crystallization were studied, nature of its structural and chemical heterogeneity was established, mechanism of porosity and crack formation was discovered and measures of their elimination were found. The results of these investigations are the theoret¬ical bases of development and improvement of welding and surfacing consumables.
The E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute (PWI) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine is the scientif c-tech¬nical complex by its structure. It includes: experimental design-technological bureau, experimental workshops, three pilot plants, several engineering centers. In all subdivisions of the Institute the staff is about 3500 persons, 1700 of them are working at the Institute proper. The scientif c potential of the Institute is 300 staff scientists, including 9 acade¬micians and 7 correspondent members, 72 Doctor of Technical Science and more than 200 Ph.D. (Eng.).
The main directions of the Institute Scientific activity:
- integrated studies of nature of welding, brazing, spraying and related processes, creation on their basis of new high-efficient technologies, equipment and materials;
- study of strength and service properties of welded structures, development of principles and fundamentals of their designing, improvement of reliability, durability and service life;
- automation and mechanization of processes of welding and related processes;
- creation of new technologies and equipment of electrometallurgical production of extra-quality alloys and composite materials and products of them.
Over the years of the Institute activity its staff members received more than 6500 author's certificates, about 2600 patents of Ukraine, Russian Federation and foreign patents, more than 150 licenses were sold to the USA, Japan, Russia, Sweden, France, China and other countries. More than 60 developments, realized and imple¬mented into the national economy by the Institute staff members in collaboration with industrial organizations were awarded the Lenin and State Prizes in the field of science and technology, prizes after the names of out¬standing scientists of Ukraine and other prizes.
The Institute has wide international relations with leading centers of welding in Europe, USA, Asia, carries out a large work in the field of organizing the joint research works and is the member of the International Institute of Welding and European Welding Federation. On the Institute facility there are: International Council on weld¬ing and related processes of CIS countries; Scientific Council on new materials of the International Association of Academies of Sciences, International Association "Welding", the E.O.Paton Chinese-Ukrainian Institute of Welding (CUPIW), International Association "Interm", Association "High-reliable pipeline transport, Council of Society of Welders of Ukraine.